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Frequently Asked Questions About Alzheimer's Disease & Related Dementias

Learning that a loved one has Alzheimer's is emotional and overwhelming. Our list of the "most asked questions" pulls information from leading research and education organizations, such as the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, The Mayo Clinic and the Alzheimer's Association, to provide some quick answers and insight for you as you start your research.

Serious mental decline is not a normal part of aging

As people age, it's normal to have occasional memory problems, such as forgetting the name of a person you've recently met. However, Alzheimer's is more than occasional memory loss. It's a disease that causes brain cells to malfunction and ultimately die. When this happens, an individual may forget the name of a longtime friend or what roads to take to return to a home they've lived in for decades.

It can be difficult to tell normal memory problems from memory problems that should be a cause for concern. The Alzheimer's Association's web site has lot of information to help you tell the difference. If you or a loved one has memory problems or other problems with thinking and learning that concern you, contact a physician. Sometimes the problems are caused by medication side effects, vitamin deficiencies or other conditions that can be reversed with treatment. The memory and thinking problems may also be caused by another type of dementia.

The Alzheimer's Association calls the widespread but incorrect belief that mental decline is a normal part of aging "Myth #1" (Click here for more myth busters)

The Alzheimer's Association's 10 Early Signs

  1. Memory loss that disrupts daily life
  2. Challenges in planning or solving problems
  3. Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure
  4. Confusion with time or place
  5. Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships
  6. New problems with words in speaking or writing
  7. Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps
  8. Decreased or poor judgment
  9. Withdrawal from work or social activities
  10. Changes in mood and personality

Visit the Alzheimer's Association web site for a more detailed explanation of each of these warning signs.

There is a lot of confusion about the difference between Dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Association has a good overview of this:

DEMENTIA is not a specific disease. It's an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies.

Learn more about recognizing the signs of dementia and communicating with those who have dementia in our Dementia Friendly Communities Resource Guide

Individuals experiencing the early symptoms of dementia are often referred to by the medical community as having Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI is the stage between forgetfulness associated with normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease, marked by progressive memory loss.

How do you recognize someone who might have MCI? Look for these early symptoms:

  • Increased anxiety
  • Starting to lose short-term memory, which often is noticed by repetitious stories
  • Forgetting to take medications as prescribed by the physician
  • Difficulty maintaining a proper nutritionally balanced diet
  • Forgetting names and places and getting names of relatives confused (such as mixing up mothers and daughters)
  • Increased difficulty with executive functioning, which includes losing or forgetting to pay bills, not being able to balance the checkbook, missing appointments, difficulty with decision making, and poor judgment in emergency situations

Seniors living with MCI are often mistakenly viewed as being able to maintain their daily needs at home alone. At Senior Living Residences we have seen the beneficial effects first-hand when individuals with MCI move to one of our communities and get immersed in our Compass Memory Support treatment program focusing on diet, exercise, social relationships and cognitive stimulation and receive other services including personal care and medication management. Without specialized treatment for the symptoms of memory loss, anxiety increases and cognitive function declines more rapidly. Often, individuals with MCI suffer from increased isolation and depression.

The latest research suggests that treatment interventions, like Compass Memory Support, may actually slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, minimizing the cognitive decline of seniors. More About Mild Cognitive Impairment

Yes, other diseases and medical conditions can look like Alzheimer's disease or cause dementia

Although Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, it is not the only cause. Three of the most common types of dementia:

 Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and Korsakoff syndrome (a chronic memory disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin B-1, most commonly caused by alcohol misuse) can cause dementia. Traumatic or repetitive brain injury can also cause dementia. In addition, as they age, those affected by Down syndrome have a greatly increased risk of developing a type of dementia that's either the same as or very similar to Alzheimer's disease. Learn more about these diseases and others that can cause dementia 

There currently isn't a simple test that can diagnose Alzheimer's. There are several promising studies being conducted now. Our affiliate - the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center (BUADC), a world-renowned Alzheimer’s research center funded by the National Institutes of Health, is involved with this research. There are two cutting edge studies open to the general public: 

  1. AVID PET SCAN STUDY: The safe procedure, which has been approved by the FDA, costs approximately $2,000 and is currently not paid for by Medicare. This groundbreaking study is using a new PET scan technique to measure the amounts of abnormal tau and amyloid proteins in the brain.

  2. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY AIMING TO DEVELOP A BLOOD TEST FOR ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: This has received a lot of media coverage but Dr. Robert Stern of the BUADC cautions that its implementation on a wide scale is still years away.

Visit the BUADC web site for details on these studies including how to volunteer to participate in the research.

The Alzheimer's Association has detailed information on the various methods used currently that help physicians diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Although there is no single test that proves a person has Alzheimer's, a diagnosis can be made through a complete assessment that considers all possible causes.

* Sources: Boston University School of Medicine Alzheimer's Disease Center, Alzheimer's Association

Currently there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But drug and non-drug treatments may help with both cognitive and behavioral symptoms. 

Promising New Drugs: Researchers, including our affiliate - the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center (BUADC) - are looking for new treatments to alter the course of the disease and improve the quality of life for people with dementia. The BUADC has ongoing clinical trials of several promising new drugs and they are also testing new diagnostic tools. For more information about their research studies and how you can get involved,visit the BUADC web site and download this PDF.

Current Drugs that Help with Memory Loss: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two types of medications — cholinesterase inhibitors (Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne, Cognex) and memantine (Namenda) — to treat the cognitive symptoms (memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Association says that the FDA-approved drugs temporarily slow worsening of symptoms for about 6 to 12 months, on average, for about half of the individuals who take them. The Mayo Clinic's web site has a good overview of these drugs, as well as the Alzheimer's Association.

Non-Drug Treatments that Help Manage Behavioral Symptoms: Researchers have overwhelming concluded that diet, exercise, cognitive stimulation and maintaining social relationships have beneficial effects on those who already have Alzheimer's and have amazing brain protective properties that can actually prevent the onset of the disease for some people. The Mayo Clinic also reports that new multi-component programs targeting high risk populations seem to be effective. These encourage physical activity, cognitive stimulation, social engagement and a brain healthy diet. They also teach memory compensation strategies that help optimize daily function even if brain changes progress.

At Senior Living Residences we are proud of our innovation and foresight in creating a treatment program based on this exciting and evolving body of knowledge and current research on Alzheimer's. We developed a comprehensive treatment program for individuals with Alzheimer's starting in 2007 based on very early research and launched our Compass Memory Support Program in 2010, including the first brain healthy nutrition program in the country for assisted living residents.

The Mayo Clinic reports that, although there is no proven way to prevent Alzheimer's disease, the strongest evidence so far suggests that you may be able to lower your risk of Alzheimer's disease by reducing your risk of heart disease. Many of the same factors that increase your risk of heart disease can also increase your risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, including high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, excess weight and diabetes.

Researchers also now believe that keeping active — physically, mentally and socially — may help reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Several new studies are looking at the positive effects that certain diet, exercise and social lifestyle can have on slowing down the progression of the disease.

The Alzheimer's Association also advocates that we make brain healthy life choices, pointing to several simple steps you can take to help keep your brain healthier as you age:

  • Stay physically active
  • Remain socially active
  • Remain mentally active
  • Adopt a brain healthy diet (Visit our Brain Healthy Cooking Guide for recipes, brain healthy nutrition guidelines and shopping lists!)

Sources: Mayo Clinic, Alzheimer's Association

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